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Cultivating Pak Choi (Bok Choy or Chinese Cabbage): A Comprehensive Guide

Pak Choi, also known as Chinese cabbage or Bok Choy, is a small-sized cabbage variety that can be easily cultivated in Italy. Let's explore how to grow it.

by BioGrow

Pak Choi, scientifically known as Brassica rapa chinensis, closely resembles Swiss chard in appearance. In Italy, it often goes by the names of cavolo bietola or cavolo cinese, owing to its Oriental origins. This vegetable is a staple in Chinese cuisine, featuring in numerous dishes. Its compact size makes it ideal for home gardens, where space is often limited. With proper care, it’s an easy-to-grow and resilient plant. In the kitchen, Pak Choi is cherished for its versatility and excellent nutritional properties.

Let’s explore the techniques for organic cultivation of Pak Choi.

Identifying Pak Choi

Chinese cabbage
Pak Choi, scientifically termed Brassica rapa chinensis, belongs to the vast Brassicaceae family, which includes common vegetables like cauliflower, broccoli, turnip greens, romanesco broccoli, savoy cabbage, and cabbage.

Botanical Characteristics of Chinese Cabbage

At first glance, Chinese cabbage resembles Swiss chard. When mature, it forms a medium-sized head, which can weigh up to one kilogram. Numerous leaves branch out from the base, featuring broad midribs that end in dark green leaves. Pak Choi leaves have almost smooth edges, a smooth surface, and a prominent white vein. The plant’s root is fibrous, fairly short and stout, with numerous secondary lateral roots.

How to Grow Pak Choi

The cultivation of Pak Choi is similar to that of regular cabbage. It thrives in cool and moist climates but struggles in hot and dry conditions. It can be grown throughout Italy, with the best results in late autumn or early winter. It’s not well-suited for spring and summer cultivation as it tends to bolt and produce seeds in the heat. From planting to full maturity, it takes approximately 80 days. Therefore, it’s ideal to plant Pak Choi in late summer, allowing you to harvest it before the arrival of intense and prolonged frosts that could damage it.

Seeding and Seedlings for Chinese Cabbage

Chard cabbage seedlings
To begin cultivating Chinese cabbage in your home garden, you’ll need to purchase seeds or seedlings. Local nurseries may not always have this cabbage variety, but seeds can be easily found online.

Sowing Pak Choi

When starting from seeds, you can sow the seedlings using the seedbed technique. Direct sowing is not recommended. It’s advisable to use polystyrene containers with specialized compartments for seedlings. Also use a good quality potting soil. Use good-quality seed starting mix for sowing. Place 1-2 seeds in each compartment, burying them at a depth of about 2-3 mm. If both seeds sprout, remove the weaker seedling. Keep the seed mix consistently moist but not waterlogged to prevent rot. The seedbed can be placed outdoors, but it’s best to avoid full sun, especially during summer sowings. Keep in mind that, from the time of sowing, it takes approximately 30 days for Pak Choi seedlings to be ready for transplanting. Therefore, plan accordingly. For example, if you sow on August 1st, you’ll have seedlings by September 1st and so on.

Preparing the Soil for Transplanting

Pak Choi is quite adaptable and can grow well in various types of soil. However, for optimal development, it prefers loose, well-drained soil with a good supply of organic matter. Prepare the soil in advance with initial plowing and then a shallow hoeing. If the soil lacks organic matter, consider adding mature manure, homemade compost, or worm castings. Choose your planting location wisely, as Pak Choi follows standard crop rotation practices. Specifically, it should not be planted where other cabbage plants were previously grown. If it follows a crop that recently received ample fertilization, such as tomato cultivation, additional fertilization may not be necessary.

Transplant Spacing for Chinese Cabbage

Compared to other cabbage varieties, Pak Choi has smaller dimensions. During transplanting, leave about 30 cm of space between each plant in a row, and space rows about 50 cm apart.

Irrigation for Chinese Cabbage

As mentioned earlier, Chinese cabbage prefers moist soil. Therefore, it’s essential to ensure consistent watering. If you are transplanting during the summer, you will likely need proper artificial irrigation, preferably using a drip irrigation system. Keep in mind that Pak Choi is typically grown in autumn when rainfall is frequent. If this condition applies, there may be no need for additional irrigation.


To retain soil moisture and prevent weed growth, mulching benefits Pak Choi. This helps avoid the need for frequent weeding and reduces the necessity for irrigation.


Chinese cabbage can be susceptible to attacks from certain pests, including:

When to Harvest Pak Choi

Similar to Swiss chard, which is harvested leaf by leaf, Pak Choi is collected progressively by plucking the outer leaves, starting with the largest ones. This is done once the head is well-formed. Many prefer to harvest it entirely by uprooting the plant. In any case, it’s essential not to delay the harvest to prevent the leaves from becoming too tough or damaged. Younger, less developed plants are more tender and have a milder flavor.

Recipes with Pak Choi

Pak Choi is highly regarded by chefs as it can be consumed both raw and cooked. When consuming it raw, choose the tender hearts of the plant. Another advantage of this Chinese cabbage over traditional cabbages is its digestibility. There are numerous recipes that can be prepared with its leaves. When consumed raw, it can be used in salads, dressed with extra virgin olive oil and lemon. In Chinese cuisine, the broad leaves are blanched and used to make rolls with rice and other vegetables of choice.

Nutritional Content of Chinese Cabbage

Chinese cabbage boasts excellent nutritional content. It’s rich in vitamins C and A, as well as minerals like potassium, iron, calcium, and phosphorus. Moreover, it contains antioxidants that protect the body from aging, including dihydrolutionins, glucosinolates, indoles, isothiocyanates, coumarins, and phenols.

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